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亚博的官网地址_“大空头” |当足球遇上经济危机



发布日期:2021-03-17 00:35:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

 

"There are many Manchester United fans in China, and the AIG logo on the Manchester United jersey has become a classic." said Xie Qian, deputy general manager of AIG Insurance Co., Ltd. (AIG) Beijing Branch.

“中国有很多曼联球迷,曼联球衣上的AIG徽标已成为经典。” AIG Insurance Co.,Ltd.(AIG)北京分公司副总经理谢谦说。

As a former sponsor of Manchester United, this once wealthy company was on the verge of bankruptcy in September 2008. AIG first experienced a "counterfeiting scandal" (rating scandal), and then encountered the 2008 economic crisis. In the fourth quarter of 2008, AIG's loss reached $61.7 billion, creating the largest quarterly loss in the history of the United States. In the end, the U.S. Treasury Department and the Federal Reserve made another move with a rescue fund of $30 billion. In the course of this series of off-track, AIG was exhausted, and the sponsorship with Manchester United could not continue, so a rare new jersey in the history of the Premier League was born to advertise the dead company.

作为曼联的前赞助商,这家曾经很富有的公司在2008年9月濒临破产。AIG首先经历了“假冒丑闻”(评级丑闻),然后遭遇了2008年的经济危机。在2008年第四季度,AIG的亏损达到617亿美元,创造了美国历史上最大的季度亏损。最终,美国财政部和美联储又采取了另一项举措,提供了300亿美元的救助资金。在这一系列脱轨的过程中,AIG筋疲力尽,对曼联的赞助也无法继续,因此诞生了英超联赛史上罕见的球衣来宣传这家死去的公司。

 

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So how do you sell the MBS of these non-performing loans? The clever bankers package all the bad credit loans into CDOs and divide them into two tranches. The A-grade tranche has low interest and the B-grade high. Then if there is a default part of the entire loan, the B-level loses first, and the B-level loses and then the A-level part is lost, and then they are sold to investors with different preferences. What should no one in B-level do? I took a guarantee, and then I asked a rating agency to rate an AAA, and a good product is on sale again! Later, the non-performing loans are all used up, then we will sell the CDO of the CDO, which is called

那么,您如何出售这些不良贷款的MBS?聪明的银行家将所有不亚博的官网地址良信用贷款打包为CDO,并将其分为两部分。 A级档次的利息较低,B级档次的利息较高。然后,如果整个贷款中有违约部分,则B级首先损失,B级损失然后A级部分损失,然后将它们出售给具有不同偏好的投资者。 B级人员不应该做什么?我做出了保证,然后我要求评级机构对AAA进行评级,然后又开始销售优质产品!之后,不良贷款全部用完,然后我们将出售CDO的CDO,这称为

 

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The 20 teams in the Premier League had debts of more than 3 billion euros that year. The former Manchester United shirt sponsor, the aforementioned AIG, had its share price plummeted by more than 30%. Now the sponsor of Tottenham Hotspur is a son of AIG. The company AIA (AIA) on the 16th and 17th of 2008, AIA suffered about 20,000 surrenders in Hong Kong, China, and AIA’s total insurance coverage in Macau and Hong Kong had more than 2 million insurance policies, of which more than 95% were at Hong Kong. AIG's subsidiary American International Assurance (AIA) branch in Hong Kong, China launched emergency crisis public relations on the 18th. In the end, it was confirmed that the Fed’s US$85 billion revolving loan was supporting AIG, and the wave of AIA surrenders in Hong Kong was temporarily stopped. The deteriorating trend continued, and the stock price of Tottenham Hotspur, the world's first team to list the team, also suffered a devastating blow.

那年英超20支球队的债务超过30亿欧元。前曼联球衣赞助商,即上述美国国际集团(AIG),其股价暴跌了30%以上。现在托特纳姆热刺队的赞助商是AIG的儿子。友邦保险公司(AIA)于2008年16日和17日在中国香港遭受约20,000人投降,友邦保险在澳门和香港的保险总额超过200万张,其中95%以上是在香港美国国际集团在中国香港的子公司美国国际保险(AIA)分支机构于18日启动了紧急危机公共关系。最后,事实证明,美联储提供的850亿美元循环贷款正为AIG提供支持,AIA在香港投降的浪潮暂时停止了。不断恶化的趋势持续下去,托特纳姆热刺队(世界上第一支列入名单的球队)的股价也遭受了毁灭性的打击。

The teams that competed in the Premier League in the 2007/2008 season were heavily in debt. The league as a whole was condemned and disapproved by UEFA. Most of the teams were at the end of their lives. Due to poor management, the teams sought overseas investment and sold stars. There is no guarantee for the team itself.

在2007/2008赛季参加英超联赛的球队负债累累。整个联赛都遭到了UEFA的谴责和反对。大多数团队都处于生命的尽头。由于管理不善,这些团队寻求海外投资并卖掉了明星。团队本身无法保证。

Of the 20 teams competing in the Premier League that season, 10 teams are currently relegated to the English secondary league, and this number is still growing. Among them, Wigan Athletic, Sunderland, and Portsmouth have already been relegated to the Premier League. Bolton, a powerful team that could not be ignored in the Premier League, almost went bankrupt due to economic problems. It is now in the second league and is struggling to relegation. The largest local steel plant in Middlesbrough, that is, the largest steel group in England, the British Steel Group, has also been bankrupted and reorganized in recent years. This national company that accounts for 90% of the British steel production capacity has also been acquired by a Chinese company. This will also cause immeasurable impact and challenges for the local economy and the future of the team.

在那个赛季参加英超联赛的20支球队中,目前有10支球队降级为英格兰二级联赛,并且这个数字还在不断增加。其中,威根竞技,桑德兰和朴茨茅斯已经降级为英超联赛。博尔顿是一支在英超联赛中不容忽视的强大球队,由于经济问题几乎破产。现在它已经进入了第二联盟,并且正在努力降级。近年来,米德尔斯堡最大的本地钢铁厂,即英格兰最大的钢铁集团,英国钢铁集团,也已经破产和重组。这家占英国钢铁产能90%的国有公司也已被一家中国公司收购。这也将给当地经济和团队的未来带来不可估量的影响和挑战。

 

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Germany has large consortia across the world such as Volkswagen, Audi and Bayer, and Italians have huge consortia like the Agnelli family and the Berlusconi family that are involved in various industries, but you ask yourself, what does Spain have? Nothing, so how do they support this huge football industry? In the two years of the economic crisis, Real Madrid and Russell were able to invest wildly in the global market precisely because they still had the ability to rely on personal connections to obtain loans from banks, but when Spanish banks have tightened credit, even Barcelona’s When super clubs rely on loans to pay their wages, it is enough to prove how unhealthy the country’s economy is.

德国在世界范围内拥有庞大的财团,例如大众,奥迪和拜耳,而意大利人则拥有庞大的财团,例如涉及多个行业的Agnelli家族和Berlusconi家族,但您问自己,西班牙拥有什么?没什么,那么他们如何支持这个庞大的足球产业呢?在经济危机的两年中,皇马和罗素之所以能够在全球市场上进行大量投资,恰恰是因为它们仍然有能力依靠个人关系来从银行获得贷款,但是当西班牙银行收紧信贷时,即使是巴塞罗那的当超级俱乐部依靠贷款来支付工资时,足以证明该国经济的不健康状况。

The main source of investment and income for the Spanish team is the members of the team. In addition to relying on member support, Real Madrid and Barcelona have almost monopolized all quotas in the field of football investment in this country, and the domestic investment that other clubs can attract is very limited. . In the 20 Premier League clubs, more than half of the owners are worth more than 1 billion euros. This figure in La Liga was "0" before the Qatar consortium and the Dubaines bought Getafe.

西班牙团队的主要投资和收入来源是团队成员。除了依靠会员的支持外,皇马和巴塞罗那几乎垄断了该国足球投资领域的所有配额,其他俱乐部可以吸引的国内投资非常有限。 。在20个英超俱乐部中,一半以上的老板身价超过10亿欧元。西甲联赛中的这个数字在卡塔尔财团和迪拜人收购赫塔菲之前为“ 0”。

Roig, the proprietor of Villarreal, was a member of the "1 Billion Club", but the sudden economic crisis caused heavy losses to the ceramic factory he relied on for consumer goods manufacturing.

比利亚雷亚尔的所有人罗伊格(Roig)是“十亿俱乐部”的成员,但突如其来的经济危机给他所依赖的用于消费品制造的陶瓷工厂造成了沉重的损失。

In fact, the real estate's blow to La Liga clubs has been particularly severe. Because the country cannot find the support of a financially strong consortium, they can only hope to sell land to survive like Real Madrid did in the past, but suffered a real estate bubble and deep debt. The collapse of Valencia is exactly the same: The Bats are the only teams in Europe that are hoping to obtain debt restructuring investment from replacing stadiums, but now they "own" two stadiums: one "can't sell." The other "cannot be repaired".

实际上,房地产对西甲俱乐部的打击尤其严重。由于该国无法获得财力雄厚的财团的支持,他们只能希望出售土地以维持过去像皇马一样的生存,但是却遭受了房地产泡沫和沉重的债务。巴伦西亚的崩溃是完全一样的:蝙蝠是欧洲唯一希望通过更换体育场获得债务重组投资的球队,但是现在他们“拥有”两个体育场:一个“不能出售”。另一个“无法修复”。

Known as the "engine of Europe" but now satirized as the "ruins of Europe", Madrid and Barcelona account for more than 60% of the country's population. Times. Among the top 20 in the world football club income list in recent years, La Liga is the only one of the five major leagues with only 2 teams short-listed-enough to show the gap between the rich and the poor in La Liga.

马德里和巴塞罗那被称为“欧洲引擎”,但现在被讽刺为“欧洲遗迹”,占该国人口的60%以上。时间。在最近的世界足球俱乐部收入排行榜的前20名中,西甲是五个大联盟中仅有的一支,只有两支球队入围,足以显示西甲的贫富差距。

However, it is worthy of recognition that Spanish football plays an important role in its overall economy. According to data, Real Madrid’s net investment of 257 million euros reached in 2008, setting the record for the most money-burning in European football. Superstars like Zema, Cristiano Ronaldo, Kaka, and Xavi Alonso joined in; the same Barcelona also invested 112 million euros to reinforce the lineup. The total investment of 400 million euros in La Liga that year can still be seen from the data. Spain's dependence on the football industry is no less than that of a major industry or career in other countries. Football still maintains an important role in economic recovery and promotion. This is an important feature of Spain in the development of the football industry.

但是,值得承认的是,西班牙足球在其整体经济中发挥着重要作用。根据数据,皇家马德里在2008年的净投资额为2.57亿欧元,创造了欧洲足球最赚钱的纪录。 Zema,Cristiano Ronaldo,Kaka和Xavi Alonso等超级巨星也加入其中;同样的巴塞罗那也投资了1.12亿欧元来加强阵容。从数据中仍可以看出拉西加当年的总投资额为4亿欧元。西班牙对足球产业的依赖不亚于其他国家的主要产业或职业。足球在经济复苏和促进中仍然发挥着重要作用。这是西班牙在足球产业发展中的重要特征。

 

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From the prosperous "Little World Cup" to today's situation, the Italian Football League is affected by the global bubble economy, and its domestic situation is also inevitable. In 2001, the total deficit of Italian football clubs at all levels reached 1.675 billion euros. From the 1998/99 season to the 2007/08 season, the total loss of Serie A was as high as 20 billion euros! Similarly in the field of virtual economy, the stock markets of Italy and Spain both fell sharply during the economic crisis, and their long-term government bond yields also rose to near 7% historical highs in the euro area. This indicates that the virtual economies of both countries are also facing Great danger. In such a sluggish economic environment between the two countries, La Liga and Serie A took the lead in the suspension crisis of the league. Those who originally intended the next family also gave up the acquisition plan, so that the club can only reduce costs by arrears, salary cuts or layoffs; in addition, in order to reduce the deficit, governments in this case tend to treat high-income earners. Tax increases for players have caused conflicts between the players union and professional leagues. The Serie A crisis is a typical example. In other words, when clubs that were able to operate on debt find that it is extremely difficult (or have no debt at all) now, a lot of things about modern professional leagues are exposed.

从繁荣的“小世界杯”到今天的状况,意大利足球联赛受到全球泡沫经济的影响,其国内状况也是不可避免的。 2001年,意大利各级足球俱乐部的总赤字达到16.75亿欧元。从1998/99赛季到2007/08赛季,意甲的总亏损高达200亿欧元!同样在虚拟经济领域,意大利和西班牙的股票市场在经济危机期间均急剧下跌,其长期政府债券收益率也升至欧元区近7%的历史高位。这表明两国的虚拟经济也都面临着巨大的危险。在两国之间如此低迷的经济环境中,西甲和意甲在联盟的停赛危机中处于领先地位。那些原本打算下一个家庭的人也放弃了收购计划,因此俱乐部只能通过拖欠,减薪或裁员来降低成本;此外,为了减少赤字,政府在这种情况下倾向于对待高收入者。球员加税导致球员工会与职业联赛之间发生冲突。意甲危机就是一个典型的例子。换句话说,当能够靠债务经营的俱乐部现在发现这非常困难(或根本没有债务)时,有关现代职业联赛的许多事情就会暴露出来。

 

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The current league model of world football has given many speculators an opportunity to take advantage of. Some capital predators invest in football clubs with huge sums of money and invest in stocks or physical projects. Buying low and selling high are almost the same: they first acquire a relatively high valuation. The clubs with low value-added space will then increase the salaries and transfer fees of their players and head coaches to achieve the growth of total commercial value, and then look for the next player to make a profit at a high price after a period of time. This kind of business philosophy is a process of blowing big bubbles. Everyone doesn’t care how much the team should invest, but just invests a certain incredible amount of money. Their high investment, high investment, in exchange for a team that seems unmatched on the surface. They don’t care about players’ annual salary of millions or even tens of millions of euros, and they don’t even care about the injustices of small and medium-sized clubs in such cruel competitions. They are forced to sell their core players like "selling children and selling girls" and cut back. The team invests in striving for a "one inch seat" in the top league. These investors only care about whether they can play the "Ponzi scheme" of football if they find a suitable next home, at a reasonable price... Quite a few of them don't care about football itself, only use it. This tool achieves profit or other purposes (such as money laundering, tax avoidance, transfer of property, or bargaining chips, etc.). It only cares that the bubble must continue to blow in order to make money. The professional leagues and most of the non-rich club players have become the blow The victims of bubble games, especially those teams that are relegated to low-level leagues and small teams abandoned and abandoned by wealthy businessmen, Where are their prospects? In other words, local privates who really like a team and support a club Bosses, fans, where is their investment and return?

当前的世界足球联赛模式为许多投机者提供了利用的机会。一些资本掠夺者用巨额资金投资于足球俱乐部,并投资于股票或实物项目。低买高卖几乎是相同的:它们首先获得相对较高的估值。具有低附加值空间的俱乐部将增加其球员和主教练的薪水和转会费,以实现总商业价值的增长,然后寻找下一个在一段时间后以高价获利的球员。时间。这种经营理念是一个吹大泡泡的过程。每个人都不在乎团队应该投入多少,而只是投入了一定数量的资金。他们的高投入,高投入,以换取一个表面上看似无与伦比的团队。他们不在乎球员的年薪几百万甚至几千万欧元,他们甚至不在乎中小俱乐部在这种残酷比赛中的不公。他们被迫出售“卖孩子和卖女孩”这样的核心球员,并削减了。球队投资于争取顶级联赛中的“一英寸座位”。这些投资者只在乎他们是否能以合理的价格找到合适的下一所房子,是否可以参加足球的“庞氏骗局”……其中有很多人并不在乎足球本身,而只是在使用足球。该工具可实现利润或其他目的(例如洗钱,避税,财产转让或讨价还价筹码等)。它只在乎泡沫必须继续吹下去才能赚钱。职业联赛和大多数非富豪俱乐部球员受到打击。泡沫游戏的受害者,尤其是那些降级为低级联赛的球队以及被富商抛弃的小球队,他们的前景在哪里?换句话说,真正喜欢团队并支持俱乐部老板的当地私人,球迷们,他们的投资和回报在哪里?

The problem is that at the end of this capital game, if these clubs are unable to find new buyers, this big bubble will collapse. This danger is particularly prominent in the context of the international financial crisis. On the one hand, the companies or individuals to which the clubs depend are unable to maintain the original operating costs due to tight funds; on the other hand, some originally intentional next companies have also abandoned the acquisition plan. As a result, clubs can only reduce costs by owing wages, reducing salaries or layoffs. Today’s football is also facing such a crisis. Under the influence of Covid-19, leagues around the world have been suspended, players infected, and teams The economic situation has been damaged. Many low-level leagues and even top-level league teams have made many adjustments in team wages and personnel adjustments. International gold, silver, and oil prices have soared and plummeted. Commodities have continued to fall. Regional and Australian problems continue, inflation in emerging countries and regions continues to rise, the Fed pushes or does not push the third period of quantitative easing (QE3), products similar to CDOs continue to be issued by banks, Covid-19 and the growing global ecological environment crisis , Climate change, these have a major adverse impact on the world economy, the major financial institutions and companies in Europe, America and Japan began to lay off large-scale employees, artificial intelligence technology is increasingly emerging, the world football must sound the alarm. Unite and resolutely resist high-debt leagues. More importantly, we must ensure the survival of the low-level leagues and give these more cups room to survive. Even the Bundesliga, which has implemented strict financial control policies for the clubs, is relatively indebted. In few leagues, there are clubs with serious debts like Schalke 04 and Hamburg.

问题是,在这场资本竞赛的末期,如果这些俱乐部无法找到新的买家,那么这个大泡沫将崩溃。在国际金融危机的背景下,这种危险尤为突出。一方面,由于资金紧缺,俱乐部所依赖的公司或个人无法维持最初的运营成本;另一方面,一些原本有意的下一家公司也放弃了收购计划。结果,俱乐部只能通过欠薪,减少薪金或裁员来降低成本。当今的足球也面临着这样的危机。在Covid-19的影响下,世界各地的联赛被暂停,球员被感染,并且球队经济状况受到破坏。许多低级别联赛甚至顶级联赛球队都对球队的工资和人员调整做出了许多调整。国际黄金,白银和石油价格飞涨和暴跌。大宗商品持续下跌。区域和澳大利亚问题继续存在,新兴国家和地区的通货膨胀率持续上升,美联储推动或不推动第三轮量化宽松(QE3),类似于CDO的产品继续由银行发行,Covid-19全球生态环境危机,气候变化,这些对世界经济产生重大不利影响,欧美,日本等主要金融机构和公司开始裁员大规模员工,人工智能技术日益兴起,世界足球必须发出警报。团结并坚决抵制高负债联盟。更重要的是,我们必须确保低级联赛的生存,并为这些杯赛提供更多生存空间。甚至对俱乐部实行严格财务控制政策的德甲也相对负债累累。在少数联赛中,有些俱乐部负债累累,例如沙尔克04和汉堡。

 

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