In June 1924, British explorer George Mallory (George Mallory) and his teammates set out to climb Mount Everest and never came down.
He had failed several times before, but he was able to come back alive. No miracle this time.
The reporter once kept asking him, why are you climbing Mount Everest?
In fact, what they want to ask is, what is the significance of climbing Mount Everest, it is worth your life to blog?
Mallory was pressed into a hurry and said something full of Zen:
Because the mountain is there.
In 1587, Xu Xiake came to this world.
Jiangyin Xu's family is a distinguished family, not only rich, but also talented. The generation of the great ancestor Xu Jing passed down to Xu Xiake, the identity of Xu Jing is first Jiangnan talent, and then the "rich N generation".
In 1499, the big scientific investigation that changed the fate of Tang Bohu also changed the fate of Xu Jing.
That year, he and Tang Bohu went north to take the exam, taking his servants and actresses, showing off his wealth all the way, attracting people's attention and envy. During the test, someone impeached the examiner Cheng Minzheng, saying that he sold the test to Xu and Tang.
This big imperial case is really confusing. The imperial court's handling was simple and rude: the real situation is irrelevant, and the best policy is to calm the incident.
As a result, all suspects, regardless of the plaintiff and defendant, were punished.
Xu Jing and Tang Bohu, two high-spirited young people, became victims of political struggles in a muddle.
After experiencing pain, Tang Bohu embarked on the path of playing the world, and Xu Jing became a persistent petitioner.
For the rest of his life, Xu Jing never got out of the shadow of this serious scientific investigation. He changed his name to "Da Zong" and named his anthology "Ben Gan Ji". He was depressed and unhappy all his life, running around and proving his innocence. He was only 35 years old and was on his way to his death.
His entire family's attitude towards imperial examinations gave rise to the black memory of "being bitten by a snake once and fearing the rope for ten years" in subsequent generations.
The Xu family passed to Xu Xiake's father Xu Youmian.
Xu Youmian is quite talented, but he abhors the imperial examinations, never enters official career all his life, and hides himself in the garden. When a friend persuaded him to buy an official title, he said with a look of disdain: "Tianye, water and wood are very suitable, why be an official?"
At that time, the imperial examination was still the only channel for secular success. Countless people sit in the cold window and squeeze their heads, just for the title of the gold list, so that they can seal their wives and glory.
But the more utilitarian, the more alienated people are. As it is now, everyone is rushing for worldly success, just thinking about how to make more money and how to climb up. As a result, the human nature is lost.
Only a handful of people are still guarding human nature carefully.
In his early years, Xu Xiake was deeply impressed by his father's nature.
Xu Youmian also predicted that Xu Xiake "can do my ambition without being rich" in his life. Although he hadn't seen how Xu Xiake was tossing his life when he died, his hunch could not be wrong.
When Xu Xiake was a child, he showed the same talent as Gaozu Xu Jing, but he was like his father and never keen on imperial examinations.
This child, who has no intention of worldly success, has never been under pressure from his parents and family. He wants to travel all over the world and be a traveler on his own.
History is really amazing. A few generations later, the major imperial court case of that year actually produced such strange and eye-catching fruits.
The time when Xu Xiake lived was specially marked as "Late Ming" in history.
The late Ming Dynasty was the forerunner of China's modernization. Although politics was dark, the commodity economy was developed and social thoughts were active.
The prevailing atmosphere of mass tourism at that time was more than that of today.
Every spring and autumn day or traditional festival, the famous scenic spot Wuyang Wuyang is full of human heads. Famous mountain resorts such as Mount Tai, Putuo, Jiuhua and Emei are filled with tourists and incense burning.
Zhang Dai, a contemporaneous traveler with Xu Xiake, said that during the peak tourist season, there are thousands of people visiting Taishan, and Tai'an’s hotels have “a few thousand guests”, and there are 20,000 visitors a day at the highest peak of the mountain. There are also many pilgrims and tourists who cross the sea to make a pilgrimage to Putuo. There are thousands of men and women sitting in and out of the main hall, almost no place to stand.
This forces those who are compelling to adjust their travel strategies in order to avoid crowded tourist peaks and popular attractions.
For those with a lower rank, you can travel on a staggered peak, or choose to visit unpopular areas of popular attractions. If you have a higher rank, you will be a fellow traveler, focusing on undeveloped scenic spots, and don't join in the excitement of others.
Xu Xiake's travel has also experienced a process of continuous advancement.
His lofty ambition to travel the world in his early years was not unrelated to the tourism trend of the society at that time.
"When my husband is facing the blue sea and sunset, he should limit himself by a corner? If he sees the blue sky and climbs the day, how far is the husband?" This is his bold words.
However, he is a filial son, and his mother, Wang Ru, is still alive, so she has the heart not to travel far.
At this time, Wang Ruren, an ordinary woman in the small town of Jiangyin, showed a very trendy and fashionable side.
She supports her son, has money in her hands, and just leaves. She warned her son that a man is always on the go, not to be a "fantasy pheasant" or "Yuanxiaju". The world is so big, you should go and see. She comforted her son and didn't have to miss me, I was fine.
When Xu Xiake went out for a long trip, she specially made a "long trip crown" for her son to "strengthen his career."
Not only that, but Wang Ruren's new trend is also reflected in that she may have created her own weaving brand. The cloth she wove is of fine quality and is called "Xujia cloth". It is not only sold well in the hometown, but also exported to Suzhou and other places, winning the reputation of "the famous door of plain silk.
The Xu family was able to maintain a prosperous standard of living despite the fact that two generations of people were not involved in the imperial examination, Wang Ru people contributed.
In 1624, the 80-year-old Wang Ruren specially accompanied his son to visit Yixing in order to alleviate his son's concern for him when traveling. She deliberately walked in front of her son.
Two years later, Wang Ruren died.
It can be said that without Wang Ruren's enlightenment and support, there would be no Xu Xiake who takes walking as his career.
The scholar Xia Xianchun pointed out in his article "On Xu Xiake Phenomenon in Ming Dynasty" that there were three cultural mentalities in the late Ming Dynasty:
The integration has strongly driven many scholars and literati, devoting enthusiasm, energy, wisdom and even life to the travel and investigation of natural mountains and rivers, resulting in a group of outstanding landscape scholars and geographers (the two are often both. All in one).
Because Xu Xiake is the most outstanding representative among them, he named this situation "Xu Xiake phenomenon".
People who climb Mount Everest in modern times don't want their lives and generally prepare their suicide notes. Those who love to travel at that time also had a fighting spirit.
The elder Xu Xiake, who was about 20 years old, nearly missed his life when climbing Huashan, but he had no intention of being afraid. Instead, he chanted: "It's time for Qingquan Baishi to die.
People always die, or die between the beds, wives and children crying on the sidelines, or dying on the long journey, sleeping between the clear springs and white rocks. Yuan Hongdao hopes to be the latter.
In Xu Xiake's more than 30 years of travel experience, the Southwest Tour is the most difficult one. He has been planning this trip for many years, and he has been worried that his old age will not decline unless he leaves.
In October 1636, he finally packed up and set off. He was 50 years old.
On this trip, he only carried basic necessities, and apart from warm-up clothes and tangles, he did not prepare any self-defense weapons. Hidden in his travel crown is a silver hairpin that his mother gave him during his lifetime. During his first trip, his mother sewed this silver hairpin into the cap for unexpected use.
The survey tools he carries with him are extremely simple, a pen, a compass, but with a wealth of books on his shoulders, which are all useful geographical materials.
In the end, he had to carry referral letters from his friends in order to seek help from local officials or raise travel expenses in times of crisis.
Two people started with him. One is the servant and tour guide Gu Pu, and the other is the monk Jingwen.
Jingwen is going to make a pilgrimage to Jizu Mountain in Yunnan. Servant Gu may be carrying a shovel, in Xu Xiake's words, he can bury his body anytime, anywhere.
Xu Xiake was mentally prepared to die before setting off. In a letter to the great man Chen Jiru, he said that in case there is something wrong with one another and die in this "extreme land", I am willing to be a "wandering soul".
The difficulties and dangers of the journey are indeed "worthy" of his mental preparation: three encounters with robbers, four times without food.
Along the way, he developed the ability to survive in the wilderness like Master Bei, and he could not eat for a few days without any problem.
On the boat in Xiangjiang, a group of robbers took advantage of the moonlight to rob. Xu Xiake jumped into the river to escape, losing all his belongings, leaving only a pair of pants and socks. In order to protect the scriptures written in blood, Jingwen stayed in the boat and was seriously injured. Gu Pu was also injured.
Despite the shock, Xu Xiake did not consider returning. His direction will not change.
In the end, Jingwen died on the road. Xu Xiake took his ashes and scriptures and went straight to Jizu Mountain, fulfilling the last wish of this fellow traveler.
While roaming in Baoshan, Yunnan, someone wanted to go to Jiangsu and asked Xu Xiake if he wanted to help him bring home books.
Xu Xiake hesitated for a long time, but politely declined. He said: "Floating and sinking body, I fear that my family will think that there is no fixed riverside thing; if the book arrives at home, the body is still there, and the body is afraid of not being..."
However, that night, he suffered from insomnia and wrote a letter from his family.
For him, death is something he can encounter every day. Therefore, death or life is ambivalent, and it is impossible to predict whether one can see the sun tomorrow.
In 1640, this long journey ended with a fatal disease.
Xu Xiake contracted a foot disease and lost both feet. A group of people used sliding poles to carry him back to Jiangyin.
In 1641, Xu Xiake died for a long time.
When Xu Xiake was alive, his circle of friends already recognized him as a strange man.
Wen Zhenmeng, who once served as Zaifu, said: "Xia Ke has nothing else in his life, no other hobbies, and he parades famous mountains in the world every day. Outside the Five Mountains, such as Kuanglu, Luofu, Emei, and Weiling, he has lost his footprints. The first stranger."
Qian Qianyi, the literary leader at that time, also said that Xu Xiake was a strange man of the ages, and "Xu Xiake's Travels" was a strange book of the ages.
In the late Ming Dynasty, the tourist wind was so strong, and there were many people who were not afraid of death when climbing. Why did Xu Xiake only travel to become a "strange person"?
The most fundamental reason is that Xu Xiake is different from any other tourist!
He is a "three no personnel": no establishment, no occupation, no utilitarianism.
Yuan Hongdao often describes himself as a renegade geek in his travel notes, but the distance between him and Xu Xiake is at least one imperial character.
These three are the most famous travel experts in the late Ming Dynasty, but apart from the junior Xu Xiake, the other two have establishments. Their travel, called "eunuch" at the time, was to take advantage of the opportunity of doing official or official inspections in other places to travel by the way.
Xu Xiake is different. He is a literal "traveler" who travels for tourism. In other words, his profession is tourism, and his life is tourism, living for tourism, and living for tourism.
Such a professional traveler is unique in traditional Chinese society.
Therefore, he goes further than any other tourist, is more professional, and works harder.
The literati Pan Lei of the Qing Dynasty commented on him, saying, "To travel by nature and spirit, and to travel by body, it is only one person since ancient times."
He has no worries about his journey, no regrets when he has made mistakes, has encountered theft many times, and has been desperate for food several times, but he is still tirelessly exploring the unknown realm of nature. When he is hungry, he grazes on the truth of the trees and trees. He does not avoid wind and rain. , Not afraid of tiger wolf.
He got rid of the traditional mode of viewing traveling in mountains and water as the way to cultivate sentiment, and gave tourism more scientific exploration and adventurous connotation.
The places he had conquered were often wild suburbs rarely visited by fishermen and woodcutters, or the ravines where apes and birds hid.
He travels and explores during the day, writes under the lights at night, and sometimes even burns fat and picks ears with broken walls and dead trees, and uses pens as a record.
With an objective and rigorous attitude, he faithfully recorded the walking route that day, the scenery and customs of the mountains and rivers he saw along the way, as well as his experience.
He wrote travel notes, not at all for publication. In the early days, it was written for the mother, so that the mother could "wander down" and be immersed in the famous mountains and rivers that the son had walked through. Later, it became a habit to write and write, perhaps as a dialogue between myself and myself.
He did not publish any travel notes during his lifetime. After his death, his friend organized his diary manuscript for him, but much of the content has been lost.
All he did was purely to satisfy his thirst for knowledge and curiosity. Apart from that, he has no utilitarianism and no practical value.
It is precisely because of this that he will not become short-sighted, and his life and words will still exude the brilliance of reason after centuries.
In contrast, those people and things that care about the present have long been reduced to the dust of history.
Many people like to compare Xu Xiake and Tao Yuanming, because they are both extinct from officialdom, regardless of fame, and love landscapes.
My favorite thinks that Xu Xiake is completely different from Tao Yuanming.
Xu Xiake's experience and choice actually broke through the traditional mode of living in seclusion and being in the world, marking the development of a new outlook on life.
He opened up another mode of walking in life, pointed the way of transcendence from the world to the direction of pragmatism and truthfulness with the dawn of science, and avoided becoming a copy of Tao Yuanming.
Tao Yuanming's seclusion is a tradition that has long been constructed in the historical allusions of the pre-Qin Dynasty. Tao doesn't have any originality in it.
In the face of weird people like Xu Xiake, we can hardly make an evaluation that conforms to social norms. Regardless of the norms of the late Ming Dynasty or the current norms, it seems that such a person cannot be accommodated.
We are now holding Xu Xiake so high, we are nothing more than the scientific spirit embodied in other people's travel notes.
But Xu Xiake didn't care about this. The hand down of his travel notes is inherently accidental.
If his travel notes were lost, would we still hold him so high?
I think, definitely not.
We would say that he does not seek improvement, waste time, social parasites... In short, there are 101 reasons to deny him.
When evaluating Xu Xiake in Qing Dynasty, Ji Xiaolan obviously encountered a similar dilemma. He gave a high evaluation of Xu Xiake's Travels in the "General Catalogue of the Four Treasuries", saying that "the book is a different version of the mountain classics, and it can supplement the study of geography.
However, he did not appreciate Xu Xiake's life choices, so he speculated and criticized Xu Xiake's travel motives, saying that Xu Xiake was "indulging in eccentricity and deliberately traveling far away."
What do these eight characters mean?
In other words, Xu Xiake has a weird temperament and is used to being unconventional, deliberately wandering around and indulging in it, which is suspected of being famous.
This tone is very similar to the general psychology of our current society: your behavior is beyond my imagination, so it is suspicious.
We question the generosity of rich people. Why do you donate so much money? Isn't it just a reputation? We question the plight of the poor. Why do you act poverty? Don't you just want to get love money? ...
We question businessmen, celebrities, old people, children, everything. Questioning to the end is nothing more than limited imagination by the standard answer.
In a utilitarian society, you must seek meaning in everything you do. The right to define meaning is firmly controlled by the collective.
Xu Xiake thinks his way of living is very meaningful. Sorry, we collectively think you are meaningless, you are meaningless.
However, there are always some meaningless things that transcend the world, there is always a pure inner need, hanging alone, no one understands.
The standardization of life begins with standard answers. What you should live like, when should you do what, these are considered to have standard answers. Everyone has to answer the standard answer.
Xu Xiake, you have digressed, you can only be classified as "Eternal Wonders". This may be appreciation, but it is more disagreement: you are not the same person as us.
As everyone knows: there is no meaning, sometimes it is the greatest meaning of life.
Tribute to Xu Xiake who does not live for meaning!
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