On March 18, 2020, the Mongolian government officially adopted the "National Outline for Mongolian Characters". The outline plans to fully resume the use of Uighur Mongolian (that is, traditional Mongolian) from 2025. Before that, the press and publishing industry must do it. Cyrillic Mongolian and Uighur Mongolian are used bilingually, and civil servants will also participate in training in old scripts. 2020年3月18日，蒙古政府正式通过了《蒙古文字国家纲要》。该大纲计划从2025年起完全恢复维吾尔族蒙古语（即传统蒙古语）的使用。在此之前，新闻出版业必须做到这一点。西里尔语蒙古语和维吾尔语蒙古语是双语使用的，公务员也将参加使用旧文字的培训。
On March 18, 2020, the Mongolian government officially adopted the "National Outline for Mongolian Characters". The outline plans to fully resume the use of Uighur Mongolian (that is, traditional Mongolian) from 2025. Before that, the press and publishing industry must do it. Cyrillic Mongolian and Uighur Mongolian are used bilingually, and civil servants will also participate in training in old scripts.
At that time, both Cyrillic Mongolian and Uighur Mongolian will be used in national official documents, and Uighur Mongolian will be used in the future.
Throughout history, the spread of all kinds of Mongolian scripts cannot be separated from the promotion of political forces. Mongolian script history and political history are intertwined, and the return of Uighur Mongolian scripts is the same now.
Before Genghis Khan unified all the Mongolian tribes and Mongolia quickly emerged, due to the small activity space of ethnic groups, small scale of social organization, small scale of economic activities, and less social interaction, oral communication could meet daily needs, and Mongolian language has not yet appeared. Corresponding words, people use carved wood notes to deepen their memory when they need to record.
Peng Daya, the book magistrate of the Southern Song Dynasty mission, left a more detailed record of this phenomenon in his own record of "Black Tartar History": "Only small wood, three or four inches long, with four corners carved, and it is as short as ten horses. , Then engrave ten engravings, and only engrave only a few of them. It is vulgar and dedicated, so the language is not bad, and the liar of Sfa is dead, so don’t dare to deceive.” It is also mentioned in "Miscellaneous Records of the Government and the Wild Since Jianyan" ："Tatar also has no words. Whenever the troops are sent out, the grass will be made as an appointment, so that people will be eager for the spark. Or break the wood as a contract, engrave a number of strokes, take half of each, and the army will use the wood as the test." .
With the gradual rise of Mongolia, social organization has become more complex and the space for activities has become larger. The absence of words will obviously increase the communication cost in all aspects of economy, politics, military, society, and culture, restricting the speed of development, and words have become Mongolians. Just needed. But how to create a kind of native language is a complicated systematic project.
With the gradual unification of the various parts of Mongolia and the expansion of the scope of activities, the Mongolians have become increasingly close to other ethnic groups. Some Mongolians naturally borrow the scripts of neighboring ethnic groups, such as the Uyghur script when they communicate with the Uighurs in the west; the Southeast and Liao. Chinese characters were often used in the exchanges between Jin Guo and the Southern Song Dynasty, and Jin Guo Jiangchen played a significant role in promoting Chinese characters.
Uighur and Mongolian are both agglutinative types, with many phonetic similarities, while Uighur scripts have been around for four centuries and are relatively mature. The area controlled by the Naiman tribe is close to the Uighurs, and the political and economic exchanges with the Uighurs are more frequent. They have access to the Uighur script earlier than the Qiyan Ministry led by Genghis Khan and have a better grasp of the Uyghur script. They even appointed the Uighurs as the chief seal officers to manage personnel. Appointment and finance, in fact, have used Uighur text to help management.
The event that played a decisive role in the production of Mongolian was Temujin's conquest of Naiman. After the Naiman tribe was conquered in 1204, the Uyghur Tata Tonga, the palm seal officer, was appointed to teach the four sons of Temuzhen to spell Mongolian in Uyghur script. Two years later, Temujin, who conquered various ministries, was awarded the title of Genghis Khan and began to appoint someone to edit documents in Uighur-style Mongolian to record customary laws and Genghis Khan's speech, marking the official Uyghur Mongolian language becoming the national language of Mongolia.
After Kublai Khan won the Khan position, the Greater Mongolian State was essentially divided. How to assist the Yuan Dynasty to manage and consolidate its rule in the actual control area became a practical problem. In order to facilitate the accurate translation of various characters, Kublai Khan ordered the national teacher Ba Si Ba to create a new Mongolian character. The result was called Ba Si Ba in later generations. If it is used to spell Mongolian, it is called Ba Si Ba Mongolian.
忽必烈汗（Kubblai Khan）夺取汗职后，大蒙古国基本上分裂了。如何协助元朝在实际控制地区进行管理和巩固其统治成为一个现实问题。为了促进各种汉字的准确翻译，忽必烈命令国民教师巴思巴创建一个新的蒙古语汉字。其结果在后来的世代中被称为Ba Si Ba。如果用于拼写蒙古语，则称为Ba Si Ba Mongolian。
The Pinyin script created on the basis of Tibetan can be directly translated into Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, Uighur, and Sanskrit. It was praised by later Soviet historians as the international alphabet in the 13th century. This advanced writing has also been vigorously promoted by the government. Literacy classes are quickly opened in various places and are open to both Mongolian and Han people. Students can be exempted from military service and learn well.
But the Basipa script also has defects. It is different from the natural formation process of the Uighur Mongolian script. It originated entirely from the personal will of the ruler. The national teacher Ba Siba is proficient in Tibetan and Sanskrit, but does not include the Mongolian language, so it does not consider the adhesion of the Mongolian language. The characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mongolian dialects, and the complex fonts, without punctuation, are not convenient in actual use. This character was basically abolished with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, and only some lamas continued to use it.
However, the Uighur Mongolian script still maintains its vigorous vitality and is gradually improved in the process of using it. The 14th century linguistic work "Mengwen Enlightenment" standardized the grammar and writing standards of Uighur Mongolian script, which promoted the development of this script. By the 17th century, the font and grammar of Uighur Mongolian script had undergone major changes. A large number of dictionaries, grammar books and other works appeared, which eventually evolved into the Hudumu Mongolian language used by the Inner Mongolians.
While the Mongolians in our country still use Uighur Mongolian script, Mongolia started to implement another script system-Cyrillic Mongolian as early as 1940.
The so-called Cyrillic Mongolian is Mongolian written in Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is also known as the Cyrillic alphabet. In the 9th century AD, the Byzantine priests Saint Cyril and Mefuji created the Glagolitic alphabet based on the Greek script in order to facilitate the spread of Christianity to the Slavic peoples to translate the Bible. Later, the Glagolitic alphabet was gradually standardized and systemized after a century of evolution, forming the Cyrillic alphabet today.
As the broad sense of Christianity split into God and the Orthodox Church, Cyrillic texts became Orthodox teachings and began to prevail in countries and regions dominated by the Slavic peoples. The official scripts of Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria and other countries are all Cyrillic.
Around the 1930s, the Soviet Union carried out writing reforms for many ethnic minorities in the Soviet Union, replacing the original ethnic minority alphabets with Cyrillic alphabets. Ethnic groups including Kazakh, Uzbek, Dungan, Chechen, etc. all switched to Cyrillic at that time. Alphabet.
At the beginning of Mongolia's independence, under the influence of the Soviet Union's vigorous promotion of the Cyrillic alphabet, the Cyrillic alphabet was used to spell Mongolian in 1940. By 1946, the People’s Republic of Mongolia, known as the last supernumerary republic of the Soviet Union, used Cyrillic letters instead of the traditional Uighur Mongolian script.
In terms of practical use, the Cyrillic alphabet is more suitable for the development of modern society than the Uighur alphabet.
First of all, the Uighur alphabet absorbed the elements of Central Asian Sogdian at the beginning of its creation. However, it was influenced by the writing habits of ancient Chinese characters from top to bottom, which resulted in the words of Uighur writing being spelled from top to bottom.
Uighur letters are not as distinct as English and Cyrillic letters. Each word has a backbone that connects all pronunciation letters. A single letter appears in different positions at the beginning, middle, and end of the word and has different writing methods. This is the beauty and vitality of traditional Mongolian. But in the modern society where horizontal typesetting prevails, vertical writing seems out of place.
Another reason is the beginning of the formation of the Mongolian nation, that is, when Genghis Khan unified Mongolia. There were many remnants of the Turkic and East Hu ethnic groups in the Mongolian plateau. The pronunciation and intonation of each tribe were different. This is reflected in the traditional Mongolian text. . There are seven vowels in Mongolian, but only five are written in traditional Mongolian. Moreover, traditional Mongolian also has disadvantages such as t and d, and unclear yin and masculine. Mongolian writing in Cyrillic is more standardized and Clear.
Different roads have made the use of characters in Inner and Outer Mongolia drift away. Mongolian users in China have gradually optimized and improved the Uighur Mongolian script, while Mongolia chose to write directly in Cyrillic to solve the problems of traditional characters once and for all. .
Both have their own advantages and disadvantages, and cannot be generalized, but in the sense of national cultural inheritance, Uighurs obviously have more advantages.
This has also become one of the main reasons for the Mongolian language reform.
In the 1990s, both the republics in the Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that were originally controlled by the Soviet Union experienced tremendous changes in their thinking. Although Mongolia is located in Asia, it is no exception.
The iron-and-blood policies implemented by the Soviet Union at the beginning of Mongolia’s independence, such as shooting religious figures in Mongolia, purging dissidents who opposed the Soviet Union, and large-scale expropriation of Mongolian materials during World War II were re-examined at the end of the 20th century. It became a painful memory of the Soviet era. The Cyrillic alphabet, which was once spread throughout the country, is also regarded as the Soviet Union’s cultural aggression against Mongolia.
On February 12, 1992, the Mongolian People’s Republic was renamed Mongolia, and the national flag and emblem were changed. That is, in this year, Russia withdrew from Mongolia the former Soviet army stationed here, and Mongolia moved towards true independence.
During the period from 1992 to the beginning of the 21st century, Russia's economic and international status continued to decline, which affected the progress of Mongolian language reform. In order to eliminate the influence of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian Great Hural (Parliament) announced in 1992 that it would gradually resume the use of Uighur Mongolian script.
For decades, the research and use of traditional Mongolian characters by the Chinese Mongolian academic circles centered on the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, as well as the development of Uighur Mongolian printing technology and computer input methods, have allowed Mongolian scholars to see traditional Mongolian and modern An example of social integration.
In 2011, the Mongolian government issued regulations that government officials must use the Uighur Mongolian script when communicating with international agencies or foreign official agencies. Official documents such as birth and marriage certificates of Mongolian citizens and education certificates issued by educational institutions are written in Uighur Mongolian and Cyrillic Mongolian script side by side.
After Mongolian President Battulga was elected president, he accelerated the process of returning to traditional Mongolian and quickly popularized traditional Mongolian calligraphy among the people.
On February 27 this year, Mongolia donated 30,000 sheep to China out of concern for the new crown epidemic in China. Only Uighur Mongolian script was used in relevant official documents, which released a strong signal for Mongolian script reform.
On March 18 this year, Mongolia formally adopted the "National Outline for Mongolian Characters" and decided to fully resume the use of Uighur Mongolian characters from 2025.
In a country that has used the Cyrillic alphabet for more than 70 years, the Mongolian character reform will undoubtedly be arduous and lengthy, and may even be tortuous, but as long as you start to change, there is hope for success. Just as Genghis Khan once said: Although the mountain is far away, as long as you walk step by step, one day will arrive.